Metal Plastic Materials & Machining

For each material, it has specific properties because of the different elements, so that it can be used in every industry. For example, aviation materials need light weight, high hardness, high temperature resistance, etc. If it is only some functional parts, In heavy industry, steel can be used very well. Plastics can play a big role in the model casing used in the exhibition. Below we mainly talk about the characteristics of each material and the materials used in various processing techniques.

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Metal Materials

Classification of aluminum materials

Rolled materials, cast materials, non-heat-treated alloys, pure aluminum alloys (1××× series), aluminum-copper alloys (2××× series), aluminum-manganese alloys (3××× series), aluminum-silicon alloys (4 ××× series), aluminum magnesium alloy (5××× series), aluminum magnesium silicon alloy (6××× series), aluminum zinc magnesium alloy (7××× series), other elements of aluminum alloy (8××× series).

Classification of brass materials 

Brass can be divided into two categories: 1. ordinary brass, 2. special brass

Ordinary brass is the binary alloy of copper bai zinc du: H90, H80, H68, H62

Special brass is made by adding other alloy elements on the basis of copper-zinc binary alloy: lead brass, manganese brass, silicon brass, nickel brass, aluminum brass, tin brass, iron brass, bismuth yellow Copper, antimony brass, magnesium brass.

Application and characteristics of bronze

Bronze originally refers to copper-tin alloy. Because bronze has high strength, good sliding friction resistance, excellent cutting performance and good welding performance, it has good corrosion resistance in the atmosphere and fresh water. Therefore, bronze is widely used for this purpose For elastic components such as springs and reeds and pipe fittings, chemical equipment, wear-resistant parts and anti-magnetic parts, and the production of friction-resistant parts in the aviation, automobile, tractor industry and other industries.

Classification of copper materials 

Copper got its name because of its purple-red color. It is not necessarily pure copper, and sometimes a small amount of deoxidizing elements or other elements are added to improve the material and performance.

Red copper is therefore also classified as a copper alloy. Chinese copper processing materials can be divided into ordinary copper (T1, T2, T3, T4), oxygen-free copper (TU1, TU2 and high-purity, vacuum oxygen-free copper).

Classification of steel materials

1 Carbon structural steel
2 Low alloy high strength structural steel
Composition of general low alloy high strength structural steel grades
Special low alloy high strength structural steel
3 High-quality carbon structural steel
4 Free-cutting structural steel
5 Alloy structural steel
6 Spring steel
7 Ensure the hardenability of structural steel
8 Weathering steel for welding structure
9 High weather resistance structural steel
10 Rolling bearing steel
11 Chrome-free bearing steel
12 Carburized bearing steel
13 Carbon tool steel
14 Alloy tool steel
15 High-speed tool steel
16 Stainless steel
17 Heat-resistant steel

Classification of stainless steel

Stainless steel is divided into martensite and austenite, ferrite and duplex.

1. Martensitic chromium stainless steel is mainly low carbon or high carbon steel with chromium content in the range of 11.5%-18%. Designations 403, 410, 414, 416, 416 (Se), 420, 431, 440A, 440B and 440C, the corrosion resistance of these steels comes from “chromium”.

2. Austenitic stainless steel has stable austenite structure when Cr contains about 18%, Ni 8%~10%, and C about 0.1%. Non-magnetic and has high toughness and plasticity, but the strength is low, it is impossible to strengthen it by phase transformation, it can only be strengthened by cold working.

Uses and application fields of magnesium

Application of raw magnesium

The application of primary magnesium is mainly concentrated in the production of magnesium alloys, steelmaking desulfurization, and also used in rare earth alloys, metal reduction, corrosion protection and other fields. Many steel mills use magnesium for desulfurization. The desulfurization effect of using magnesium particles is better than calcium carbide. The use of magnesium sacrificial anodes for cathodic protection is an effective method to prevent metal corrosion.

Classification, characteristics and applications of titanium alloys

Titanium is a new type of bai metal. The performance of titanium is related to the content of impurities such as carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, and oxygen. The purest titanium iodide contains no more than 0.1% dao, but its strength and plasticity are low. high. The performance of 99.5% industrial pure titanium is: density ρ=4.5g/cm3, melting point of 1725℃, thermal conductivity λ=15.24W/(mK), tensile strength σb=539MPa, elongation δ=25%, section Shrinkage ψ=25%, elastic modulus E=1.078×105MPa, hardness HB195.

There are many types of zinc alloys. In addition to casting zinc alloys are classified according to processing methods, they can also be classified according to composition, characteristics and uses:
(1) Classified by alloy composition: Zinc alloys can be divided into four categories according to composition, namely Zn-Al series, Zn-Cu series, Zn-Pstrong series and Zn-Pstrong-Al series alloys. The first class generally contains a small amount of Cu and Mg to increase strength and improve corrosion resistance. The second category is to engage in creep alloys, which generally contain Ti, that is, alloys based on Zn-Cu-Ti in actual use, and sometimes a small amount of Cr is added to further improve its creep resistance. The third category is that Zn-Pstrong series alloys are mostly used for punching battery shells and can be made into various hardware and sports equipment. The fourth category is Zn-Pstrong-Al alloy for galvanizing.

Plastic Materials

Application and characteristics of POM materials

English name: Polyoxymethylene(Polyformaldehyde) Chemical name: Polyformaldehyde

A kind of synthetic resin, also known as polyoxymethylene resin, POM plastic, Saigang material, etc.; it is a white or black plastic particle with high hardness, high rigidity and high wear resistance. Mainly used in gears, bearings, auto parts, machine tools, instrument internals and other products that play a role as skeletons.

Classification and characteristics of PC materials

PC is the abbreviation of polycarbonate, the English of polycarbonate is Polycarbonate, PC engineering du plastic for short, zhiPC material is actually one of the engineering plastics we call dao, as a material widely used worldwide, PC has its own characteristics, advantages and disadvantages. PC is an amorphous thermoplastic resin with excellent comprehensive properties.

Classification and application of PA materials

Nylon is a kind of engineering plastic with excellent performance. It has excellent mechanical properties, outstanding corrosion resistance, oil resistance, heat resistance, high modulus and other advantages. Reinforcement and flame-retardant modification can significantly improve its heat resistance, modulus dimensional stability and flame retardancy, and are widely used in industries such as automobiles, electronic and electrical, and power tools.

Classification, application and characteristics of PP materials

Classification, characteristics and applications of polypropylene (PP) plastics


(1) Polypropylene (PP) production process Polypropylene is made by addition polymerization of propylene, CH2=CHCH3, under the action of Z-N metal catalyst.

Application and characteristics of ABS material

1. ABS plastic is a terpolymer of acrylonitrile (A)-butadiene (B)-styrene (S). It combines the properties of three components, among which acrylonitrile has high hardness and strength, heat resistance and corrosion resistance; butadiene has impact resistance and toughness; styrene has high surface gloss, easy coloring and Ease of processing.

Application and characteristics of PMMA(acrylic) material

Acrylic has good weather resistance and strong hardness, and can be made into various required products, but acrylic is also good or bad, which is directly related to its service life, so what kind of acrylic material to choose becomes a headache for people.

Application and characteristics of PPS PPSU materials


①General performance: PPS is a white, high crystallinity, hard and brittle polymer. The relative density of pure PPS is 1.3, but it will increase after modification. PPS has a very small water absorption rate, generally only about 0.03%. PPS has good flame retardancy, and its oxygen index is as high as 44%. Compared with other plastics, it is a high flame retardant material in plastics (the oxygen index of pure PVC is 47%, PSF is 30%, PA66 is 29%, MPPO is 28%, PC is 25%).

Application and characteristics of PEEK

PEEK is a high temperature resistant, high performance thermoplastic special engineering plastic. It has good mechanical properties, chemical resistance, abrasion resistance, hydrolysis resistance, etc.; it has light specific gravity and good self-lubricating performance. Due to its very good processing performance, it can be filled with carbon fiber, molybdenum disulfide, etc. to further improve the lubricating performance and Mechanical strength. The broad application space of PEEK engineering plastics involves aviation, machinery, electronics, chemicals, automobiles and other high-tech industrial fields. It can manufacture high-demand mechanical parts, such as gears, bearings, piston rings, support rings, seal rings (letters), Valve discs, wear rings, etc. The excellent performance of PEEK material is mainly manifested in the following aspects:

Application and characteristics of PEI

PEI refers to polyetherimide, which is an amber transparent solid. It has inherent flame retardancy and low smoke without adding any additives. The oxygen index is 47%, the combustion level is UL94-V-0, and the density is 1.28. ~1.42g/cm3. PEI has strong high temperature stability, even non-reinforced PEI still has good toughness and strength. The long-term creep resistance of polyetherimide under high temperature and stress allows it to replace metals and other materials in many structural devices. Shows good electrical performance under variable temperature, humidity and frequency conditions. The low loss factor at GHz frequency makes polyetherimide high in microwave penetration. It has a low level of ionic pollutants, 100% R at 250F. H. The conductivity after water extraction at 207kPa for 120 hours is above 20 megohms, and it can be used as an insulating material for electronic sensor components.

Application and characteristics of PVC

PVC is the abbreviation of polyvinyl chloride and its English name is Polyvinylchloride. The main component is polyvinyl chloride. It is bright in color, corrosion-resistant, strong and durable. It is reinforced by adding some toxic auxiliary materials such as plasticizers and anti-aging agents in the manufacturing process. Its heat resistance, toughness, ductility, etc., so its products generally do not store food and medicine.

Application and classification of Teflon

Teflon is divided into several basic types: PTFE, FEP, PFA, ETFE:

1. Teflon PTFE: PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) non-stick coating can be used continuously at 260°C, with a maximum operating temperature of 290-300°C, extremely low friction coefficient, good wear resistance and excellent chemical stability .

Application and characteristics of PE-HD

High Density Polyethylene (HDPE for short) is a non-polar thermoplastic resin with high crystallinity. The appearance of the original HDPE is milky white, and the thin section is translucent to a certain extent. PE has excellent resistance to most domestic and industrial or chemical preservation properties, and will produce chemical and acid resistant fermentation products. Corrosion, such as corrosive oxidants (concentrated nitric acid), aromatic hydrocarbons (xylene) and halogenated hydrocarbons (carbon tetrachloride), resistant to acidification and fermentation.

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