Processing characteristics and application fields of laser cutting
Laser cutting is to use a high energy density laser beam to heat the workpiece, so that the temperature rises quickly, reaches the boiling point of the data in a very short time, and the data begins to vaporize to form steam. The ejection speed of these vapors is very large, and when the vapors are ejected together, it constitutes a cut in the data. Laser cutting greatly reduces processing time, reduces processing costs, and improves workpiece quality.
First, the advantages of laser cutting:
1. No damage to the workpiece: the laser cutting head will not be in contact with the appearance of the data to ensure that the workpiece is not scratched;
2. Not affected by the hardness of the material being cut: the laser can process steel plates, stainless steel, aluminum alloy plates, cemented carbide, etc., regardless of the hardness, it can be cut without deformation;
3. Good cutting quality: narrow cutting width (generally 0.1-0.5mm), high accuracy (general hole center distance error 0.1-0.4mm, contour scale error 0.1-0.5mm), good cutting surface roughness (general Ra is 12.5–25μm), the slit is generally welded without further processing.
4. Fast cutting speed: for example, 2KW laser power is selected, the cutting speed of 8mm thick carbon steel is 1.6m/min; the cutting speed of 2mm thick stainless steel is 3.5m/min, the heat affected zone is small, and the deformation is extremely small.
5. Clean, safe and pollution-free: greatly improved the working environment of the operator. Of course, in terms of accuracy and roughness of cut surface, CO2 laser cutting cannot exceed electrical processing; in terms of cutting thickness, it is difficult to reach the level of flame and plasma cutting. However, the above obvious advantages are sufficient to prove that: CO2 laser cutting has now and is replacing some of the traditional cutting methods, especially the cutting of various non-metallic materials. It is an advanced processing method that develops agilely and uses more and more widely.
6. The slit is narrow: the laser beam is focused into a very small light spot, so that the focal point reaches a high power density, the data is quickly heated to the degree of vaporization, and the transpiration forms a hole. Following the relative linear movement of the beam and the data, the holes are successively formed into slits with a very narrow width. The cutting width is generally 0.10-0.20mm;
Second. Application fields of laser cutting:
Most laser cutting machines are controlled by CNC programs or made into cutting robots. As a fine processing method, laser cutting can cut almost all materials, including two-dimensional cutting or three-dimensional cutting of thin metal plates.
In the field of car production, the cutting of space curves such as roof windows of cars has been widely used. The German Volkswagen Car Company uses a laser with a power of 500W to cut the messy shaped body sheet and various curved parts. In the field of aerospace, laser cutting is mainly used for cutting special aviation materials, such as titanium alloys, aluminum alloys, nickel alloys, chromium alloys, stainless steel, beryllium oxide, composite materials, plastics, ceramics and quartz. The aerospace parts processed by laser cutting include engine flame tube, titanium alloy thin-walled casing, aircraft structure, titanium alloy skin, wing long truss, tail wing panel, helicopter main rotor, ceramic shuttle insulation tile, etc. Laser cutting is also widely used in the field of non-metallic materials. Not only can cut materials with high hardness and brittleness, such as silicon nitride, ceramics, quartz, etc.; but also can cut and process flexible materials, such as cloth, paper, plastic plates, rubber, etc., such as laser cutting for clothing, can save clothing10 %——12%, the improvement effect is more than 3 times.