Commonly used hardware mainly includes stainless steel, cast iron, carbon steel, aluminum plate, copper rod, etc. There are many brands.
Stainless steel sus304, sus316, sus430;
Aluminum plate has 5052, 6061, hard aluminum lY12, rust-proof aluminum lF5, etc.
Carbon steel domestic brands Q235, 08F, and 1018, 1012 and other brands,
Cast iron HT150, HT200, etc.;
Brass grade table H70H68H65H63H62, which is an alloy of copper and zinc. When the zinc content is less than 39%, zinc can be dissolved in copper to form a single phase a, called single-phase brass, which has good plasticity and is suitable for cold and hot press processing. When the zinc content is more than 39%, there is a single phase and a copper-zinc-based b solid solution, called duplex brass, b makes plasticity small and tensile strength increases, and is only suitable for hot pressure processing if it continues to increase zinc. The mass fraction is reduced, the tensile strength is reduced, the no-use code is expressed by «H + number», H is brass, and the number is the mass fraction of copper. For example, H68 means copper with a copper content of 68% and a zinc content of 32%. For cast brass, the word «Z» is used before the code name. For example, ZH62 such as Zcuzn38 means that the zinc content is 38% and the balance is copper. Cast brass. H90, H80 single phase, golden yellow, so there is a total of gold, called plating, decorations, medals and so on. H68 and H59 are duplex brass and are widely used in structural parts such as bolts, nuts, washers, springs, etc. In general, duplex stainless steel for cold deformation processing uses duplex brass for hot deformation processing. Category Pure copper oxygen-free copper phosphorus deoxidized copper silver-containing pure copper China GB T2 TU1 TP1 TP2 TAg 0.08 United States United Kingdom DIN ECu-58 OF-Cu SW-Cu SF-Cu – West German Digital System 2.0090 2.0040 2.0076 2.0220 2.0230 2.0240 2.0250 2.0265 2.0280 2.0335 2.0321 2.0360 2.0331 2.0332 2.0090 Japan JIS C1100 C1020 C1201 C1220 C1271 pp C2100 C2200 C2300 C2400 C2600 C2680 C2700 C2720 C2800 C2801 C3560 C3710 C3604 2.0380 2.0401 C3771 C3710 C3603 ASTM CDA BS C11000 110 C102 C10200 102 C103 C12000 C12100 C12200 122 C12900 C13000 130 C101 C106 CuAg0.1 CuZn5 CuZn10 CuZn15 CuZn20 CuZn30 CuZn33 CuZn36 CuZn37 CuZn40 CuZn40 TAg0.1 H96 H90 H85 H80 H70 H68A H68 H65 through yellow H63 H62 H60 HPb63-3 copper lead brass C21000 210 CZ125 C22000 220 CZ101 C23000 230 CZ102 C23000 C24000 240 CZ103 C26000 260 CZ106 C26100 C26200 CZ126 – P C26800 268 CZ107 C27000 270 C27400 272 CZ108 C27200 C28000 280 280 CZ109 C28000 C34500 345 CZ119 CuZn36pb1.5 C34700 347 CZ124 CuZn36pb3 CZ120 CZ121 CuZn39pb2 CuZn37pb0.5- HPb63-0.1 C34900 HPb60-2 HPb59-2 HPb59- 1 C3 6000 C35300 C37800 CZ122 CuZn39pb3 HPb58-2.5 C38000 National bronze grade and standard comparison table China Germany Europe International Standard USA Japan GB DIN EN ISO UNS JIS KRUZZEICHEN NUMBER Symbol Number Symbol Number Number TU2 OF-Cu2.0040 Cu-OFE CW009A Cu-OF C10100 C1011 – SE-Cu 2.0070 Cu-HCP CW021A – C10300 – SE-Cu 2.0070 Cu-PHC CW020A – C10300 T2 E-Cu58 2.0065 Cu-ETP CW004A Cu-ETP C11000 C1100 TP2 SF-Cu 2.0090 Cu-DHP CW024A Cu-DHP C12200 C1220 – SF-Cu 2.0090 Cu-DHP CW024A Cu-DHP C12200 C1220 – SF-Cu 2.0090 Cu-DHP CW024A Cu-DLP C12200 C1220 TP1 SW-Cu 2.0076 Cu-DLP CW023A Cu-DLP C12000 C1201 H96 CuZn5 2.0220 CuZn5 CuZn39Pb3 2.0401 CuZn39Pb3 CW614N CuZn39Pb3 C38500 C3603 – CuZn40Pb2 2.0402 CuZn40Pb2 CW617N CuZn40Pb2 C38000 C3771 – CuZn28Sn1 2.0470 CuZn28Sn1As CW706R CuZn28Sn1 C68800 C4430 – CuZn31Si1 2.0490 CuZn31Si1 CW708R CuZn31Si1 C44300 – CuZn20Al2 2.0460 CuZn20Al2As CW702R CuZn20Al2 C68700 C6870 QSn4-0.3 CuSn4 2.1016 CuSn4 CW450K CuSn4 C51100 C5111 – CuSn5 2.1018 CuSn5 CW451K CuSn5 C51000 C5102 QSn6.5-0.1 CuSn6 2.1020 CuSn6 CW452K CuSn6 C51900 C5191 QSn8-0.3 CuSn8 2.1030 CuSn8 CW453K CuSn8 C52100 C5210 BZn12-24 CuNi12Zn24 2.0730 CuNi12Zn24 CW403J CuNi12Zn24 C75700 BZn12-26 CuNi18Zn27 2.0742 CuNi18Zn27 CW410J CuNi18Zn27 C77000 C7701 BZn18-18 CuNi18Zn20 2.0740 CuNi18Zn20 CW409J CuNi18Zn20 C76400 C7521 – CuNi10Fe1Mn 2.0872 CuNi10Fe1Mn CW352H CuNi10Fe1Mn C70600 C7060 – CuNi30Mn1Fe 2.8820 CuNi30Mn1Fe CW354H CuNi30Mn1Fe C71500 C7150 CE500L CuZn5 C21000 C2100 H90 CuZn10 2.0230 CuZn10 CW501L CuZn10 C22000 C2200 H85 CuZn15 2.0240 CuZn15 CW502L CuZn15 C23000 C2300 H80 CuZn20 2.0250 CuZn20 CW503L CuZn20 C24000 C2400 H70 CuZn30 2.0265 CuZn30 CW505L CuZn30 C26000 C2600 H68 CuZn33 2.0280 CuZn33 CW506L CuZn35 C26800 C2680 H65 CuZn36 2.0335 CuZn36 CW507L CuZn35 C27000 C2700 H63 CuZn37 2.0321 CuZn37 CW508L CuZn37 C27200 C2720 HPb63-3 CuZn36Pb1.5 2.0331 CuZn35Pb1 CW600N CuZn35Pb1 C34000 C3501 HPb63-3 CuZn36Pb1.5 2.0331 CuZn35Pb2 CW601N CuZn34Pb2 C34200 H62 CuZn40 2.0360 CuZn40 CW509N CuZn40 C 28000 C3712 H60 CuZn38Pb1.5 2.0371 CuZn38Pb2 CW608N CuZn37Pb2 C35000 HPb63-3 CuZn36Pb3 2.0375 CuZn36Pb3 CW603N CuZn36Pb3 C36000 C3601 HPb59-1 CuZn39Pb2 2.0380 CuZn39Pb2 CW612N CuZn38Pb2 C37700 C3771 HPb58-2.5.

Metal processing technology is selected for use environment, cold rolled sheet, hot rolled sheet, surface galvanized, nickel plated, sandblasted, blackened, etc.
There are many plastic surface treatment (processing) processes, such as injection (painting), silk screen, pad printing, PVD, NCVM, IMD, IML;
The most used plastic processing technology does not do the above treatment, and the appearance texture is realized by the different biting specifications of the mold surface and the color of the plastic grain.
ABSPCPVCHIPS is an engineering thermoplastic material with a wide range of uses.
ABS is opaque and ivory-colored pellets, and its products can be colorful and have high gloss. The relative density of ABS is about 1.05, and the water absorption rate is low. ABS has good bonding with other materials.
Easy surface printing, coating and coating treatment. ABS has an oxygen index of 18 to 20 and is a flammable polymer. The flame is yellow, has black smoke, and emits a special cinnamon flavor.
Mechanical properties
ABS has excellent mechanical properties, excellent impact strength and can be used at extremely low temperatures. ABS has excellent wear resistance, good dimensional stability and oil resistance, and can be used for bearings under medium load and speed.
The creep resistance of ABS is larger than that of PSF and PC, but smaller than PA and POM. The bending strength and compressive strength of ABS are poor in plastics. The mechanical properties of ABS are greatly affected by temperature.
Thermal performance
The heat distortion temperature of ABS is 93~118 °C, and the product can be improved by about 10 °C after annealing. ABS can still exhibit a certain toughness at -40 ° C, and can be used in the temperature range of -40 to 100 ° C.
Environmental performance
ABS is not affected by water, inorganic salts, alkalis and various acids, but is soluble in ketones, aldehydes and chlorinated hydrocarbons. It is subject to stress cracking due to erosion by glacial acetic acid and vegetable oil. ABS has poor weather resistance,
Degradation is easy under the action of ultraviolet light; after half an year outdoors, the impact strength is reduced by half.
Electrical performance
ABS has good electrical insulation and is hardly affected by temperature, humidity and frequency, and can be used in most environments.
ABS plastic processing properties
ABS, like PS, is a thermoplastic with excellent processing properties and can be processed by general processing methods.
ABS has better melt fluidity than PVC and PC, but is worse than PE, PA and PS, similar to POM and HIPS. The flow characteristics of ABS are non-Newtonian fluids; its melt viscosity is related to processing temperature and shear rate. , but more sensitive to the shear rate.
ABS has good thermal stability and is not prone to degradation. ABS has a high water absorption rate and should be dried before processing. The drying condition of general products is temperature 80~85 °C, time 2~4h;
The drying conditions for special requirements (such as electroplating) are temperature 70~80 °C, time 18~18h. ABS products are prone to internal stress during processing, and the internal stress can be tested by immersion in glacial acetic acid;
If the stress is too large and the product is absolutely prohibited from stress cracking, it should be annealed. The specific conditions are placed in a hot air circulating drying oven at 70~80 °C for 2~4h, and then cooled to room temperature.
PC (Polycarbonate)
Specific gravity: 1.18-1.20 g / cm 3 Molding shrinkage: 0.5-0.8% Molding temperature: 230-320 ° C Drying conditions: 110-120 ° C 8 hours Long-term use at -60 ~ 120 ° C
Material properties High impact strength, good dimensional stability, colorless and transparent, good coloring, good electrical insulation, corrosion resistance and wear resistance, but poor self-lubrication, stress cracking tendency, high temperature easy to hydrolyze,
Poor compatibility with other resins. Suitable for making small instrument parts, insulating transparent parts and impact resistant parts
Molding performance 1. Amorphous material, good thermal stability, wide forming temperature range and poor fluidity. Low moisture absorption, but sensitive to water, must be dried. The molding shrinkage rate is small, and it is prone to melt cracking and stress concentration. Therefore, the molding conditions should be strictly controlled, and the plastic parts must be annealed.
2. High melting temperature, high viscosity, more than 200g plastic parts, it is advisable to use a heated extension nozzle.
3. The cooling speed is fast, the mold casting system is based on the principle of coarse and short, and it is better to set the cold material well, the gate should be large, and the mold should be heated.
4. If the material temperature is too low, it will result in lack of material, the plastic parts will be dull, the material temperature will be too high, and the plastic parts will foam. When the mold temperature is low, the shrinkage rate, elongation, impact strength are high, and the bending, compressive and tensile strengths are low. When the mold temperature exceeds 120 degrees, the plastic parts are cooled slowly, and the mold is easily deformed.
PS plastic (polystyrene) Polystyrene
Specific gravity: 1.05 g / cm 3
Molding shrinkage: 0.6-0.8%
Molding temperature: 170-250 ° C
Material performance
Excellent electrical insulation (especially high-frequency insulation), colorless and transparent, light transmittance is second only to plexiglass, coloring and water resistance, good chemical stability, general strength, but brittle, easy to produce stress cracking,
Not resistant to benzene, gasoline and other organic solvents. Suitable for making insulating transparent parts. Decorative parts and chemical instruments. Optical instruments and other parts.
Molding performance
1. Amorphous material, low moisture absorption, no need to dry fully, not easy to decompose, but large thermal expansion coefficient, easy to generate internal stress. Good fluidity, can be molded by screw or plunger injection machine.
2. It is advisable to use high material temperature, high mold temperature, low injection pressure and prolonged injection time to reduce internal stress and prevent shrinkage and deformation.
3. Various forms of gates can be used, and the gates are connected with the circular arc of the plastic parts to avoid damage to the plastic parts when the gates are removed. The drafting angle is large and the ejection is uniform. The plastic parts have uniform wall thickness, preferably without inserts. If the inserts should be preheated.
HIPS refers to high density PS.
PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) Chemical and Physical Properties Rigid PVC is one of the most widely used plastic materials. PVC material is a non-crystalline material.
PVC materials are often added with stabilizers, lubricants, auxiliary processing agents, colorants, impact agents and other additives in actual use.
PVC materials are non-flammable, high strength, weather resistant and excellent geometric stability. PVC is highly resistant to oxidizing agents, reducing agents and strong acids.
However, it can be corroded by concentrated oxidizing acids such as concentrated sulfuric acid, concentrated nitric acid, and is also not suitable for contact with aromatic hydrocarbons or chlorinated hydrocarbons.
The melting temperature of PVC during processing is a very important process parameter. If this parameter is improper, it will lead to the problem of material decomposition. The flow characteristics of PVC are quite poor and the process range is narrow.
In particular, large molecular weight PVC materials are more difficult to process (this material usually incorporates a lubricant to improve flow characteristics), so small molecular weight PVC materials are usually used. The shrinkage rate of PVC is quite low, generally 0.2 to 0.6%.

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